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OpenStax: Free Anatomy and Physiology Textbook

Table of Contents:
  1. Unit 1: Levels of Organization
    1. 1. An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2. Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3. Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4. Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5. Homeostasis
      7. 1.6. Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7. Medical Imaging
    2. 2. The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1. Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2. Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3. Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4. Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5. Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
    3. 3. The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1. The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2. The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3. The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4. Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5. Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6. Cellular Differentiation
    4. 4. The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1. Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2. Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3. Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4. Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5. Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6. Tissue Injury and Aging
  2. Unit 2: Support and Movement
    1. 5. The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1. Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2. Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3. Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4. Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
    2. 6. Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1. The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2. Bone Classification
      4. 6.3. Bone Structure
      5. 6.4. Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5. Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6. Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7. Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
    3. 7. Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1. Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2. The Skull
      4. 7.3. The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4. The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5. Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
    4. 8. The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1. The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2. Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3. The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4. Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5. Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
    5. 9. Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1. Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2. Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3. Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4. Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5. Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6. Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7. Development of Joints
    6. 10. Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1. Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2. Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3. Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4. Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5. Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6. Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8. Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9. Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
    7. 11. The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1. Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2. Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3. Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4. Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Thorax
      6. 11.5. Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6. Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
  3. Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12. The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1. Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2. Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3. The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4. The Action Potential
      6. 12.5. Communication Between Neurons
    2. 13. Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1. The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2. The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3. Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4. The Peripheral Nervous System
    3. 14. The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1. Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2. Central Processing
      4. 14.3. Motor Responses
    4. 15. The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2. Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3. Central Control
      5. 15.4. Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
    5. 16. The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1. Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2. The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3. The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4. The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5. The Coordination and Gait Exams
    6. 17. The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1. An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2. Hormones
      4. 17.3. The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4. The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5. The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6. The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7. The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8. Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9. The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10. Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11. Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
  4. Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
    1. 18. The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1. An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2. Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3. Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4. Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5. Hemostasis
      7. 18.6. Blood Typing
    2. 19. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1. Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2. Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3. Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4. Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5. Development of the Heart
    3. 20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1. Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2. Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3. Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4. Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5. Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6. Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
    4. 21. The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1. Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2. Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3. The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4. The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5. The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6. Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7. Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
  5. Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22. The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1. Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2. The Lungs
      4. 22.3. The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4. Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5. Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6. Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7. Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
    2. 23. The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1. Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2. Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3. The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4. The Stomach
      6. 23.5. The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6. Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7. Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
    3. 24. Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1. Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2. Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3. Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4. Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5. Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6. Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7. Nutrition and Diet
    4. 25. The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1. Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2. Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3. Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5. Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6. Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7. Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8. Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9. Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10. The Urinary System and Homeostasis
    5. 26. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1. Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2. Water Balance
      4. 26.3. Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4. Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
  6. Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27. The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3. Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
    2. 28. Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1. Fertilization
      3. 28.2. Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3. Fetal Development
      5. 28.4. Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6. Lactation
      8. 28.7. Patterns of Inheritance

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