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What kinds of misinformation and disinformation are out there?
• Fabricated content: completely false content.
• Manipulated content: content that includes distortions of genuine information or imagery — a headline, for example, that is made more sensationalist to serve as "clickbait."
• Imposter content: material involving impersonation of genuine sources — by using the branding of an established news agency, for instance.
• Misleading content: information presented in a misleading way — by, for example, presenting comment as fact.
• False context of connection: factually accurate content that is shared with false contextual information — for example, a headline that does not reflect the content of an article.
• Satire and parody: humorous but false stores presented as if they are true. Although this isn't usually categorized as fake news, it may unintentionally fool readers.
SATIRE Sites: Read each site's own disclaimers
-Call The Cops: America's 27th most trusted source for public safety news
Disclaimer: (Accessed 8/3/2020) "This site is a satire of the current state of Law Enforcement, Fire Fighting and Emergency Medical work. Stories posted here are not real and you should not assume them to have any basis in any real fact. Heck we tend to leave in spelling and grammer errors just to prove we is not the professional media. No reference of an individual, company, or government entity seeks to inflict malice or emotional harm."
(Accessed 2016) "Disclaimer: The Dandy Goat is a satirical news publication. We offer our condolences to anyone who has suffered from the actual suspension of disbelief. To request a retraction, an apology, or a clarification of our policies on factual verification, please contact the responsible party at email@example.com."
(Accessed 8/3/2020) "Originally launched in 2013, the Dandy Goat was a news and political satire blog that ran until late 2016. The Goat was meant to spend the rest of its days grazing in a small and unseen corner of the internet. However, in mid-2020, the Goat was brought back." Satire/Parody tag in Facebook.
The Lapine (.ca)
Disclaimer: (Accessed 8/3/2020) " The Lapine is all about poking people and things that deserve to be poked. It is satirical commentary written by all kinds of people from here, there and darned near everywhere."
Disclaimer: (Accessed 8/3/2020) "National Report is a news and political satire web publication, which may or may not use real names, often in semi-real or mostly fictitious ways. All news articles contained within National Report are fiction, and presumably fake news. Any resemblance to the truth is purely coincidental. Advice given is NOT to be construed as professional. If you are in need of professional help, please consult a professional. National Report is not intended for children under the age of 18."
(Accessed 8/3/2020) "The First Amendment protects satire
as a form of free speech and expression. The Onion uses invented names in all of its stories, except in cases where public figures are being satirized. Any other use of real names is accidental and coincidental.
The Onion is not intended for readers under 18 years of age."
Satire from the Borowitz Report (newyorker.com)
(Accessedd 8/3/2020) "Not the news." Posted as part of the headline.
Disclaimer: (Accessed 8/3/2020) "The Spoof is a fabricated satirical newspaper and comedy website published by Spoof Media Ltd. The Spoof uses invented names in all its stories, except in cases when public figures are being satirized. Any other use of real names is accidental and coincidental. All contributors are responsible for the content of their own material in respect to (but not limited to) copyright, libel and defamation. The content of this web-site (graphics, text and other elements) is © Copyright Spoof Media Ltd 2010 and may not be reprinted or retransmitted in whole or in part without the express written consent of the publisher. The Spoof is not intended for people under 18 years of age. If you are aware of any copyright infringement or have any other queries or complaints, please contact us as soon as possible so that we can investigate and, where necessary, correct the problem. Please accept our apologies in advance on behalf of any contribution which has offended. Please contact us using the enquiry form or email firstname.lastname@example.org"