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Critical & Creative Thinking - OER & More Resources: Philosophy & Thinking

Understanding, for better or worse, starts with entertaining the idea that something is true. The brain tries to make thinking easier by creating heuristics, but sometimes these are inaccurate. Therefore you must be vigilant in evaluating any assumption.

Ideas to ponder

Philosophy is love of wisdom, so it implies that one wants to know and understand something.

Keep in mind that different cultures have different ideas about what is considered to be wisdom:

Foundations, or the basis of study, started with the beginnings of questioning the world around us.
Critical thinking looks at the facts, or most defensible facts. This is important because emotion often creates a filter to hide or ignore uncomfortable factoids.

  • Creative thinking is combining known or imagined ideas in new ways.
  • When people have cherished beliefs/world-views that conflict with new facts, they need to use critical thinking skills to question why they do not want to accept the new “facts”.
  • In science, if multiple experiments find the same range of values in the results, then the results are expected to be a reliable foundation for further study.

Even scientists can be susceptible to the adage: I’ll see it when I believe it.”

The American Philosophical Association

Why study philosophy?


Foundation for Critical Thinking

Permission to Use Our Work
Site Map
Begin Here
College and University Faculty
College and University Students
Main Library of Critical Thinking Resources
About Critical Thinking
Defining Critical Thinking
A Brief History of the Idea of Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking: Basic Questions & Answers
Our Conception of Critical Thinking
Sumner’s Definition of Critical Thinking
Research in Critical Thinking
Fundamentals of Critical Thinking
Content Is Thinking, Thinking is Content
Critical Thinking in Every Domain of Knowledge and Belief
Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Student Reasoning
Open-minded inquiry
Valuable Intellectual Traits
Universal Intellectual Standards
Thinking With Concepts
The Analysis & Assessment of Thinking
Glossary of Critical Thinking Terms
Distinguishing Between Inert Information, Activated Ignorance, Activated Knowledge
Critical Thinking: Identifying the Targets
Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions
Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory
Becoming a Critic Of Your Thinking
Documenting the Problem
Intellectual Foundations: The Key Missing Piece in School Restructuring
Pseudo Critical Thinking in the Educational Establishment
Why Students and Teachers Don’t Reason Well
Critical Thinking in the Engineering - Novices don't know what to ask
Critical Thinking Movement: 3 Waves
Higher Education Instruction
An Overview of How to Design Instruction Using Critical Thinking Concepts
Recommendations for Departmental Self-Evaluation
A Sample Assignment Format
Critical Thinking Class: Student Understandings
Structures for Student Self-Assessment
Socratic Teaching
John Stuart Mill: On Instruction, Intellectual Development, and Disciplined Learning
Critical Thinking and Nursing
Teaching Tactics that Encourage Active Learning
Making Critical Thinking Intuitive
Strategy List: 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought
For Students
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies
Developing as Rational Persons: Viewing Our Development in Stages
How to Study and Learn (Part One)
How to Study and Learn (Part Two)
How to Study and Learn (Part Three)
How to Study and Learn (Part Four)
The Art of Close Reading (Part One)
The Art of Close Reading (Part Two)
The Art of Close Reading (Part Three)
Looking To The Future With a Critical Eye: A Message for High School Graduates
Issues in Critical Thinking
Ethical Reasoning Essential to Education
Ethics Without Indoctrination
Engineering Reasoning
Accelerating Change
Applied Disciplines: A Critical Thinking Model for Engineering
Global Change: Why C.T. is Essential To the Community College Mission
Natural Egocentric Dispositions
Diversity: Making Sense of It Through Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking, Moral Integrity and Citizenship
Critical Thinking and Emotional Intelligence
The Questioning Mind
Newton, Darwin, & Einstein
The Role of Socratic Questioning in Thinking, Teaching, & Learning
The Critical Mind is A Questioning Mind
Three Categories of Questions: Crucial Distinctions
Reading Backwards: Classic Books Online
Institutions Using Our Approach to Critical Thinking

Philosophy - Thinking about how to think.

Learning about Philosophy Seems to Improve Critical Thinking

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