Retain – the right to make, own, and control copies of the content
Reuse – the right to use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)
Revise – the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)
Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)
Redistribute – the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)
"Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions." (UNESCO)
OER can be in the form of full courses, course materials, textbooks, curricula, syllabi, lecture notes, tests, assignments, videos, audio. etc.
Ideally, an Open Educational Resource (OER) allows the 5 R's. The CC0 License "allows owners of copyright- or database-protected content to waive those interests in their works and thereby place them as completely as possible in the public domain, so that others may freely build upon, enhance and reuse the works for any purposes without restriction under copyright or database law."
Open content is licensed in a way that grants users the permission to:
|Retain||Make, own, and control copies of the content (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage)|
|Reuse||Use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)|
|Revise||Adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content (e.g., translate the content into another language)|
|Remix||Combine the original or revised content with other material to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)|
|Redistribute||Share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., post a copy of the content online for others to download)|
This material is based on original writing by David Wiley, which was published freely under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license at: Defining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational Resources.
The terms "open content" and "open educational resources" describe any copyrightable work (traditionally excluding software, which is described by other terms like "open source") that is licensed in a manner that provides users with free and perpetual permission to engage in the 5R activities:
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