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An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments: Logical Falicies
Know your weakness: Assumptions. Biases. Stereotypes.
Common Cognitive Distortions
"Checklist of Cognitive Distortions" by Dr. Burns [PDF]
1. All-or-nothing thinking: You restrict possibilities and options to only two choices: yes or no (all or nothing).
2. Over generalization: You view a single, negative event as a continuing and neverending pattern of defeat.
3. Negative Mental filter: You dwell mostly on the negatives and generally ignore the positives.
4. Discounting the positives: You insist your achievements or positive efforts do not count.
5. Jumping to conclusions:
A. Mind-reading: You assume that people are reacting negatively to you without any objective evidence.
B. Fortune-Telling: You predict that things will turn out badly without any objective evidence.
6. Magnification or minimization: You blow things way out of proportion or minimize their importance.
7. Emotional reasoning: You base your reasoning from your feelings: "I feel like a loser, so I must be one."
8. "Should/must guilting: You criticize yourself or other people with "musts," "shoulds," "oughts," and "have tos."
9. Labeling: Instead of saying "I made a mistake," you tell yourself "I'm an idiot" or "I'm a loser."
10. Personalization: You blame yourself almost completely for something for which you were not entirely responsible.