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Human Relations - Topics & Resources: Teen relationship issues

Cyber Civil Rights Initiative.org

A. Overall victimization, threat, and perpetration rates
1. Victimized or threatened with NCP. 12.8% of all participants reported having been victims of NCP (having had a
sexually-explicit image of themselves shared without their consent) or having been threatened with NCP.
2. NCP Victims. 8% of all participants reported having been victims of NCP (having had a sexually-explicit image of
themselves shared without their consent) at some point in their lives.
3. Only threatened with NCP. 4.8% of all participants reported having only been threatened with NCP, without it ever being
distributed.
4. NCP Perpetrators. 5.2% of all participants reported having perpetrated NCP (having shared a sexually-explicit image of
someone without their consent) at some point in their lives.

B. Gender Differences
1. Victimized or threatened with NCP by gender. 12.8% of all participants (n = 389/3044) reported having been victims of
NCP (having had an image of them shared without their consent) or having been threatened with NCP. Women were
significantly more likely (about 1.7 times as likely) to have been victims of NCP or to have been threatened with NCP
compared to men, with 15.8% of all women reporting having been victimized or threatened vs. 9.3% of men across all age
groups.

2. NCP Victims by gender. 8% of all participants (n = 244/3044) reported having been victims of NCP (having had an image
of them shared without their consent) 1 at some point in their lives. Women were significantly more likely (about 1.5 times as
likely) to report having been victims than men, with 9.2% of all women reporting victimization vs. 6.6% of men across all age
groups.

3. Only threatened with NCP by gender. 4.8% of all participants (n = 145/3044) reported having only been threatened with
NCP, without it ever being distributed. Women were significantly more likely (about 2.5 times as likely) to have been
threatened with NCP than men, with 6.6% of all women reporting having been threatened vs. 2.6% of men across all age
groups.

4. NCP Perpetrators by gender. 5.2% of all participants (n = 159/3044) reported having perpetrated NCP (having shared a
sexually-explicit image of someone without their consent) at some point in their lives. Men were significantly more likely
(twice as likely) to report having been perpetrators of than women, with 7.4% of all men participants reporting perpetration vs.
3.4% of all women across age groups.

C. Age Differences
1. Perpetration by age. Participants between the ages of 18-25 reported the highest levels of NCP perpetration compared to
other age groups, with 8.2% of participants in this age group reporting having shared sexually-explicit images of another
person(s) without consent at some point in their lives.2

2. Victimization by age. Participants between the ages of 34-41 reported the highest levels of lifetime NCP victimization
compared to other age groups, with 12.4% of participants in this age group reporting having been victims of NCP at some
point in their lives.3

3. Victimized or threatened with NCP by age. Participants between the ages of 26-33 reported the highest levels of lifetime
victimization or being threatened with NCP compared to other age groups, with 17.7% of participants in this age group
reporting having been victimized by or threatened with NCP at some point in their lives.4

D. Perpetrator Motives
Of the 159 individuals who reported having perpetrated NCP by sharing sexually-explicit images of another person without
his/her consent (5.2% of the entire sample, 159/3044), the most commonly chosen reason for perpetration was just to share
“with friends” without the intention “to hurt” the person (79% of all self-identified perpetrators selected this option). Only 12%
of perpetrators reported having committed NCP because they were upset with the victim and/or wanted to harm them.
Participants were permitted to choose multiple reasons for having sent the image(s), though most chose only one reason (M =
1.18, SD = 0.44).

E. Perpetrator Methods
Of the 159 individuals who reported having perpetrated NCP by sharing images (5.2% of the entire sample, 159/3044), the
most commonly chosen method for sharing the image(s) was via text message (44.7% of all perpetrators reported having used
this method). The second most common method was “other” (31.4% of perpetrators selected this option) with most of this
category representing in-person sharing. Participants were permitted to choose multiple methods for sharing, and most chose
only one method (M = 1.24, SD = 0.57).

Of the 159 individuals who reported having perpetrated NCP by sharing images (5.2% of the entire sample, 159/3044), the
most commonly chosen prohibitive factor participants chose in response to the question “What might have stopped you from
sharing the image(s)?” was if they knew they had to register as a sex offender (with 60% of all perpetrators selecting this
reason). Participants were permitted to choose multiple factors that would have stopped them, and most chose about five (M =
4.88, SD = 3.85).

G. Health Outcomes
1. Victims vs. NonVictims. Those who reported having had their sexually-explicit image(s) shared without their consent at
least once (n = 244/3044) had significantly worse mental health outcomes and higher levels of physiological problems (i.e.,
somatic symptoms) than non-victims (n = 2800/3044) as measured by the Mental Health Inventory 5-item Scale (MHI-5;
Berwick et al., 1991) and the Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8; Gierk et al., 2015), respectively.

2. Health for those victimized or threatened with NCP vs. those never victimized or threatened. Those who reported
having had their sexually-explicit image(s) shared without their consent or having been threatened with the sharing of their
images without consent (n = 389/3044) had significantly worse mental health outcomes and higher levels of physiological
problems (i.e., somatic symptoms) than non-victims (n = 2655/3044) as measured by the Mental Health Inventory 5-item Scale
(MHI-5; Berwick et al., 1991) and the Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8; Gierk et al., 2015), respectively.

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